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Global Housing Technology Challenge - India

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Stone has been used for wall construction since time in memorial. The wall constructed using stone laid with mortar is termed as stone masonry walls. The stone masonry walls can be classified into two categories rubble masonry and ashlar masonry.
The rubble masonry is further divided into four categories (a) uncoursed rubble masonry : This is poorest form of stone masonry. The stone to be used for work are directly obtained from the quarry and laid with mortar. Normally this wall are thick and constructed into two leafs i.e. outer leaf and inner leaf. (b) Random rubble masonry: Here the stones are hammer or chisel - dressed. (c) Coursed rubble masonry: This is the form of commonly adopted in the construction of residential buildings, public buildings, piers and apartments. The stones are dressed and laid in courses having more or less similar height. (d) Dry rubble masonry : This is ordinary rubble masonry without mortar.  
The ashlar masonry is the stone masonry work which is done from carefully dressed stones.
The stone works are very popular in most of part of India where stones are available locally. It works out to be a cheaper option it can be constructed with local unskilled labour. However, there are certain precautions which a common man must undertake i.e. (1) always built the walls with through stones at regular intervals so that the outer and inner leaf are bonded.(2) since the walls are heavy they should be avoided in earthquake prone areas or reinforcement are they should be reinforced. (3) Vertical joints should be staggered as far as possible. (4) Vertical surfaces should be constructed truly vertical and checked with plump. (5) Necessary chases should be formed in stone for dowels and cramps before use in masonry. (6) The stone masonry should be cured well.

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